This is a work in progress, addtional data regarding Thai food will be included in the future

Minerals in the body

Minerals (in fact elements) are essential to the body. These can be present in relatively large amounts like calcium and iron, which are building components for our bones and blood cells respectively, or very tiny amounts but will play a fundamental role in very specific protein action.

In this section you will find a short description of the different minerals that you body requires and as well as a full list of elements in our body

Dietary Sources are separated into products that are easily found globally (Western) and on local market (Thai)

Iron - Calcium - Phosphorus - Sodium - Potassium - Sulfur - Fluorine - Chlorine - Iodine - Magnesium - Zinc - Manganese - Copper - Cobalt - Selenium - Molybdenum - Silicon - Boron - Vanadium - Chromium - Other minerals



Purpose: Iron-bearing proteins. One of them is hemoglobin the protein that helps red blood cells carrying oxygen around your body.


Prevention: Some types of anemia


Western Dietary Sources: meat, beans, nuts, lentils, wholegrain, dark-green leafy vegetables.

Thai Dietary Sources: organs, blood curd, cricket

Recommended Daily Intake: ~10mg; ~15mg for menorrheic women


Overdose: >>20mg/day can lead to constipation, feeling sick, vomiting, stomach pain




Purpose: Building cation to bones and teeth; Nervous system and muscle contractions; manage blood clotting


Prevention: rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis


Western Dietary Sources: dairy products; seafood, green leaf vegetables, nuts

Thai Dietary Sources: fish/shrimp sauce, fermented fish/shrimp, eat-all fish, frog meat, soya, tofu, sesame, cumin, curry

Recommended Daily Intake: 0.7 to 1g


Overdose: >>1.5g can lead to stomach pain and diarrhea




Purpose: Building cation to bones and teeth; used to build DNA and RNA as well as a main component for energy storage (ATP)


Prevention: rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis


Western Dietary Sources: meat, dairy products, nuts, cereals

Thai Dietary Sources: (fermented) fish, pumpkin seed, cuttlefish, roe

Recommended Daily Intake: 0.25g


Overdose: >>0.55g can lead to diarrhea and stomach pain; chronic overdose leads to hypocalcemia which fragilise bones




Purpose: Manage blood chemistry (pressure, pH, …)


Prevention: dehydration


Western Dietary Sources: salt, baking soda

Thai Dietary Sources: MSG, salty sauces (fish, soy, shrimp, oyster,...), fermented fish & shrimp products

Recommended Daily Intake: 5g


Overdose: A high sodium diet can cause high blood pressure, strokes and heart attacks




Purpose: Manage blood chemistry (pressure, pH, …), heart function and cell metabolism


Prevention: dehydration


Western Dietary Sources: Fruits (bananas, apricots), nuts & grains, broccoli, parsnips, brussels sprouts, fish, shellfish, meat

Thai Dietary Sources: Soy sauce, Shitake

Recommended Daily Intake: 3.5g


Overdose: Stomach pain, feeling sick and diarrhea






Prevention: some skin conditions


Western Dietary Sources: garlic, onion, brocolli

Thai Dietary Sources:

Recommended Daily Intake:


Overdose: skin dryness, possible diarrhea; some compounds can create an allergic reaction








Western Dietary Sources: Water*, cod, corn

Thai Dietary Sources: sweet potato, soy products

Recommended Daily Intake:






Purpose: Stomach function, cell metabolism




Western Dietary Sources: Salt

Thai Dietary Sources: salty sauces (fish, soy, shrimp, oyster,...)

Recommended Daily Intake:






Purpose: Thyroid function, metabolic rate control




Western Dietary Sources: Seafood, fish, egg, iodised salt

Thai Dietary Sources: Seaweed, mackerel

Recommended Daily Intake: 0.14 mg


Overdose: >0.5 mg: affect thyroid functions with many symptoms including weight gain




Purpose: Energy storage & transport (ATP), parathyroid glands function, amino-acifd (protein production




Western Dietary Sources: nuts, cereals, green leaf vegetables, fish, meat, dairy

Thai Dietary Sources: mung bean, pandan nuts, soybean, peanut, coconut

Recommended Daily Intake: 300 mg


Overdose: >> 400 mg can cause diarrhea




Purpose: Enzymes for cell metabolism and duplication; processing nutrients out of food, wound healing




Western Dietary Sources: meat, shellfish, dairy, cereals, grains, nuts

Thai Dietary Sources: taro, coconut, rice, mushrooms

Recommended Daily Intake: 7-10 mg


Overdose: >> 25 mg can lead to anemia and bone fragility




Purpose: Enzymes, coenzymes



Western Dietary Sources: tea, nuts, cereals, beans, sweet potato

Thai Dietary Sources: taro


Recommended Daily Intake: 2-4 mg


Overdose: chronic overdose lead to muscle pain, nerve damage, fatigue, depression




Purpose: red & white blood cell formation, hemoglobin production, growth




Western Dietary Sources: nuts, shellfish, mushroom, grains, beans, potatoes

Thai Dietary Sources: organ, peas (chickpea, mungo), taro


Recommended Daily Intake: 1 mg


Overdose: >>1.2 mg can produce stomach pain, sickness, diarrhea, chronic overdose can lead to liver and kidney damage




Purpose: essential for vitamin B12, see vitamin 12




Western Dietary Sources: shellfish, fish, nuts, brocolli, spinach, cereals

Thai Dietary Sources: peanut, taro

Recommended Daily Intake: 1.5 mg as B12


Overdose: heart and fertility affected




Purpose: Immune system and reproduction, play a role in cell repair and tissues (glutathione)




Western Dietary Sources: brazil nut, garlic, prawn, fish, meat, egg

Thai Dietary Sources: brown rice


Recommended Daily Intake: 0.06-0.08 mg


Overdose: >>0.35 mg selenosis lead to loss of hair, skin, nails, and  and worse




Purpose:Proteins used to repair and reproduce genetic material




Western Dietary Sources: nuts, canned vegetables, cereals, peas, beans, lentils, brocolli, spinach, cauliflower

Thai Dietary Sources: organ, mung beans, watercress


Recommended Daily Intake:


Overdose: joint pains








Western Dietary Sources:

Thai Dietary Sources:

Recommended Daily Intake:










Western Dietary Sources:

Thai Dietary Sources:

Recommended Daily Intake:










Western Dietary Sources:

Thai Dietary Sources:

Recommended Daily Intake:






Purpose: Influence on insulin behavior and energy intake from food




Western Dietary Sources: wholegrain, lentils, brocolli, spices, seafood

Thai Dietary Sources: liver


Recommended Daily Intake: 0.025 mg




Other minerals

Below is a periodic table showing most elements that exists and their characteristics in the human body. Only the few listed above have a role in the human body, most are inert or highly toxic, clearly showing that with the exception of a large dozen of elements, the other five dozens have no use for us and the "minerals are good for us" is only applicable to a small fraction of them. Be aware that Any product promoting an extremely high number of 'minerals' is either deceptive or toxic.


In the following table, the colour code apply to their role in the human body:

Green is Essential. The human body cannot function properly in the absence of those elements. If it’s lacking you have a deficiency with potentially life-threatening symptoms

Lime Green is Non-Essential. These are less common alternatives to essential minerals.  If it’s lacking, there is no deficiency since it is only playing the same role than a more abundant mineral.

Yellow is Inert. These elements are called the inert gases and do not interact with anything including the human body

Light Orange is Inactive. These minerals are not known to play any essential biological role. Scientific studies show that in absence of this element, there is strictly no change in your body. Some of these minerals are used in specific medical treatments.

Red is Toxic. These minerals are harmful to the human body. Toxicity definition requires a threshold concentration before causing measurable harm. In normal conditions, daily intake of these minerals are below toxicity levels.